PT  International, LLC  Semiconductor Training

Managing Fiber Optic Technology

An intense 2 day course that dives deep into every aspect of fiber optic technology. Starting with a physical model of electrodynamics in media at optical frequencies, the optic fiber is presented as a dielectric waveguide with an accurate and intuitive distinction between single and multimode fibers and resultant modal dispersion. Reflection and refraction are used to illustrate polarization effects. Interference is presented as the basis for optical filters, multiplexers and demultiplexers, and spectrum analyzers. Light generation and coherence are taught in the context of electronic transitions in atomic and semiconductor systems and used as the foundation to understand lasers and optical transmitters, PIN diodes and optical receivers, and Raman scattering and optical amplifiers. The evolution of the index of refraction as a function of wavelength provides the framework for an accurate understanding of chromatic and, for polarization mode dispersion, the effect of crystal and nonlinear effects such as birefringence, the Kerr effect, and dichroism. Advanced topics such as the use of solitons in communications systems, the optical switch, novel fiber designs and new modulation techniques are introduced to encourage discussion. This seminar can be modified to concentrate on your primary areas of concern.

What the Course Covers:

  • Design fiber optic networks
  • Decide whether a single-mode fiber is necessary or if a multi-mode fiber will do
  • Determine the appropriate wavelengths of light for a given fiber
  • Estimate the distance a DWDM signal can travel before an EDFA is required
  • Calculate the maximum bandwidth for a DWDM system based on fiber quality and distance of transmission
  • Choose the appropriate test equipment for RnD, manufacture, and field testing
  • Predict potential problems with different network designs and implementations
  • Invent new amplifiers, mux/demux, dispersion compensators, and fibers
  • Figure out how new technology works for the next decade

Part 1 – Review of the basics Properties of electromagnetic waves

The index of refraction and dispersion

Summary of fiber optic network elements

Part 2 – The foundation – electrodynamics of continuous media

Dielectric response to electromagnetic fields

Electrostatics to electrodynamics – polarizability Electromagnetic waves in dielectric media

Classical model of the index of refraction Brewster’s angle and building intuition for light behavior in fibers

Wavelength dependence of the index of refraction: transmission and absorption

Nonlinear effects: Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering, Kerr effect, Pockel’s effect, Faraday’s effect

Part 3 - Fiber physics – the Optical Waveguide

Dielectric waveguides

Snell’s law and numerical aperture

Geometric optics: lenses Modes of oscillation in optic fibers

Step-index optic fibers – the complete solution Modal dispersion

Graded index fibers

Evanescent waves and directional couplers

Mode coupling mux/demux

Coupler manufacture Optical impedance and fiber optic connections

Fiber connectors

Future fiber technologies: photonic crystals, band-gap fibers, and holey fibers

Part 4 – Passive components and Spectrum Analysis

 Physical Optics Interference and diffraction Coherence Interferometry

The wavelength meter Filters, etalons, tunable filters, thin film demultiplexer

Periodic variations in waveguides and coupling

Notch filters, gratings, grating-based mux/demux, AWG, interferometric filters, monochromaters

Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSA)

Faraday isolator, polarization based circulators

The optic switch: MEMS, bubbles, electro-optic, holographic, Brillouin Characterization of passive devices


Part 5 – Transmitters and Receivers: The generation and detection of light Generation of electromagnetic radiation: spontaneous emission Coherence and particle-wave duality

Energy structure of semiconductors

Physics of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and lasers

Survey of laser types and properties

Modulation direct and indirect: Mach-Zehnder modulators

Characterizing transmitters: power, frequency, linewidth, chirp/FM, modulation index, transmitter distortion, noise, reflections, Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) Optical receivers: the physics of the PIN diode and the Avalanche Photodiode (APD) Characterizing receivers: quantum efficiency and responsivity, bandwidth, thermal noise and dark current, shot noise and noise equivalent power, optical SNR, sensitivity

The future: optical computing


Part 6 – Optical Amplifiers

The physics of optical amplifiers: Raman scattering EDFA design

The EDFA and other types of optical amplifiers

Characterizing EDFAs: Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE), gain spectrum, optical gain, gain compression, saturation, gain competition, noise figure, WDM gain, Spectral Hole Burning (SHB), Polarization Hole Burning (PHB) Raman amplifiers

Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) Hybrid amplifiers


Part 7 – Dispersion Intuitive grasp: dispersion and media polarizability

Index of refraction – transmission and absorption Material and waveguide dispersion

How to calculated tolerable levels of dispersion

Characterizing chromatic dispersion in fibers

Four wave mixing

Chromatic dispersion compensators

Birefringence, dichroism and Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Polarization maintaining fibers

Mode coupling and polarization correlation

length Wavelength dependence of PMD: 1st and 2nd order PMD Maximum fiber length tolerable to PMD Characterizing PMD


Part 8 – The Future Solitons – pulses without distortion Stopping light The soliton-hologram switch



Who Should Attend:

Engineers, scientists, senior engineering, physics and math student


Next Schedule Date and Location:

Only offer at clients' site

Price:$14,900 USD for up to 14 students

Contact us if interested in an on site training program